Doctor of juridical science
Legum Doctor (English: Doctor of Laws; abbreviated to LL.D.) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law.
In BrazilThe Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas is the highest academic degree in law existing. The degree is conferred upon the completion and the successful argument of a thesis prepared by the doctoral applicant. In many Law Schools, the applicants are also required to gain a minimum number of credits.
In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and EuropeThe degree is a higher doctorate generally awarded on the basis of extraordinarily insightful and distinctive publications that include important and innovative contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In Canada, the S.J.D. or LL.D. are awarded as substitutes for Ph.D. in law. In South Africa, the LL.D. is awarded by many university law faculties as the highest degree in law, also based upon research and conclusion of a Ph.D. equivalent exposition like in most European countries. The LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon a person's contributions to society.
In GermanyThe Doctor is the highest degree in law awarded as Dr.iur (Doctor iuris) based on a dissertation.
In MaltaThe LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law needing at least three years of full time study at the University of Malta, Malta's national university. Students are required to terminate assignments in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be "an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out enough research therein". It awards the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the conditions for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposite to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts), but it is also the highest degree generally obtained by faculty members teaching law.
Practicing lawyers, in Malta, are of three designations – notaries, legal procurators and advocates. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree, also offered by the university, is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. All three professions also need members to be holders of a warrant emitted by the President of Malta, accessible after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time.
Distinguished holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (current Prime Minister of Malta).
In The United StatesThe Doctor of Juridical Science, S.J.D. (or J.S.D.) is usually an honorary degree. It may also be awarded for research by the submission of a thesis. In this case, it is seen as equivalent to a Doctor of Philosophy.
The S.J.D. is relatively rare, even among professors on law school faculties (less than 5% hold the degree). In 2005 about 60 such degrees were conferred. The Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree is the usual degree held by professors of law in the United States.
In ItalyThe title given to anybody who graduates from university is "Doctor of Law", having completed a usual course of undergraduate studies. These can be compared to the British Bachelor of Laws degree.